International Journal of Genetics and Genomics

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Agricultural Biotechnology and Crop Improvement: A Review

To meet the needs of a predicted worldwide population of nine billion people in the year 2050, agricultural biotechnology's promise of sustainable crop production improvements is critical. Climate change, scarcity of land for agriculture, and social issues are the factors that limit agricultural production and productivity, resulting in poverty, starvation, malnutrition, and deaths for millions of people throughout the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In most developing countries, including Africa, agricultural production and productivity systems are not supported by modern technology. Nowadays, advanced agricultural biotechnology techniques such as genetic modification and transformation of plants play a crucial role in crop improvement by introducing advantageous novel gene(s) or inhibiting the transmission of existing traits in the plants. Crop resilience to abiotic and biotic variables, quality of the grain, and crop design will all contribute considerably to the community's adoption of genome-edited crops in order to advance the lines of breeding and utilize distinct environmental responses. Herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance, and nutritional improvement are all characteristics of genetically modified crops. Therefore, crop improvement using agricultural biotechnology is the best and most efficient way in agriculture to overcome food insecurity and climate change disasters globally.

Agricultural Biotechnology, Crop Improvement, Genetic Transformation, Genome Editing, GM Crops

Mulatu Gidi. (2023). Agricultural Biotechnology and Crop Improvement: A Review. International Journal of Genetics and Genomics, 11(3), 81-85.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Grassini, P.; Eskridge, K. M.; Cassman, K. G. (2013). Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends. Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 2918. [CrossRef].
2. Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A. (2013). Yield trends are insufficient to double global crop production by 2050. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, e66428. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
3. Johanson A, Ives CL, (2001). An inventory of the agricultural biotechnology for Eastern and Central Africa region. Michigan State University. p. 62.
4. Mayet M (2007). The new green revolution in Africa: Trojan Horse for GMO? A paper presented at a Workshop: “Can Africa feed itself”? – Poverty, Agriculture and Environment – Challenges for Africa. 6-9th June 2007, Oslo, Norway. Center for African Biosafety (
5. Treasury, H. M. (2009). Green biotechnology and climate change. European Biology, 12. Retrieved from Biotechnology-and Climate-Change
6. Gosal, S. S.; Wani, S. H. (2018). Cell and Tissue Culture Approaches in Relation to Crop Improvement. In Biotechnologies of Crop Improvement; Gosal, S. S., Wani, S. H., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2018; Volume 1, pp. 1–55; ISBN 978-3-319- 78283-6. [CrossRef].
7. Stelpflug, S. C.; Eichten, S. R.; Hermanson, P. J.; Springer, N. M.; Kaeppler, S. M. (2014). Consistent and Heritable Alterations of DNA Methylation Are Induced by Tissue Culture in Maize. Genetics 2014, 198, 209–218. [CrossRef].
8. Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, V. M. (2021). Somaclonal Variation and Methods Used for Its Detection. In Propagation and Genetic Manipulation of Plants; Siddique, I., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2021; pp. 1–18; ISBN 9789811577369.
9. Bridgen, M. P.; Van Houtven, W.; Eeckhaut, T. (2018). Plant Tissue Culture Techniques for Breeding. In Ornamental Crops; VanHuylenbroeck, J., Ed.; Handbook of Plant Breeding; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2018; pp. 127–144; ISBN 978-3-319- 90698-0.
10. Zhang, D.; Wang, Z.; Wang, N.; Gao, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Lin, X.; Dong, Y.; et al. (2014). Tissue Culture-Induced Heritable Genomic Variation in Rice, and Their Phenotypic Implications. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e96879. [CrossRef].
11. Krishna, H.; Alizadeh, M.; Singh, D.; Singh, U.; Chauhan, N.; Eftekhari, M.; Sadh, R. K. (2016). Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement. Biotech 2016, 6, 1–18. [CrossRef].
12. Machczynska, J.; Orłowska, R.; Zimny, J.; Bednarek, P. T. (2014). Extended metAFLP approach in studies of tissue culture induced variation (TCIV) in triticale. Mol. Breed. 2014, 34, 845–854. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
13. Bhojwani, S. S.; Dantu, P. K. (2013). Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text; Springer: New Delhi, India, 2013; ISBN 978-81-322-1025-2.
14. Keshavareddy, G.; Kumar, A.; Ramu, V. S. (2018). Methods of Plant Transformation—A Review. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2018, 7, 2656–2668. [CrossRef].
15. Goff, S. A. et al. (2002). A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica). Science 296, 92–100 23.
16. Yu, J. et al. (2002). A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica). Science 296, 79–92 24.
17. IRGSP (International Rice Genome Sequencing Project) (2005). The Map-Based Sequence of the Rice Genome. Nature, 436, 793-800.
18. Tuskan, G. A. et al. (2006). The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science 313, 1596–1604.
19. Paterson, A. H. et al. (2009). The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses. Nature 457, 551–556 27.
20. Schnable, P. S. et al. (2009). The B73 maize genome: complexity, diversity, and dynamics. Science 326, 1112–1115 28.
21. Schmutz, J. et al. (2010). Genome sequence of the paleopolyploid soybean. Nature 463, 178–183.
22. Varshney, R. K. et al. (2009). Next-generation sequencing technologies and their implications for crop genetics and breeding. Trends Biotechnol. 27, 522–530 30.
23. Huang, S. et al. (2009). The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. Nat. Genet. 41, 1275-1281.
24. Xiao, B. Z. et al. (2009). Evaluation of seven function-known candidate genes for their effects on improving drought resistance of transgenic rice under field conditions. Mol. Plant 2, 73–83.
25. Oh, S. J. et al. (2009). Overexpression of the transcription factor AP37 in rice improves grain yield under drought conditions. Plant Physiol. 150, 1368-1379.
26. Jain SM (2009) Mutation induced genetic improvement of neglected crops. In: Tadele Z (ed) New approaches to plant breeding of orphan crops in Africa. In: Proceedings of an International Conference, Bern, Switzerland. Stämpli AG, Bern, 19–21 Sept 2007.
27. Ahloowalia BS, Maluszynski M, Nichterlein K (2004). Global impact of mutation-derived varieties. Euphytica 135: 187–204.
28. Grifths AJF, Wessler SR, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM, Suzuki DT, Miller JH (2005). Introduction to genetic analysis. 8th (ed.) FreemanWH, New York. genetic-analysis.pdf
29. Kumar K, Gambhir G, Dass A et al (2020). Genetically modified crops: current status and future prospects. Planta 251: 91.
30. Cros, D., M. Denis, L. Sánchez, B. Cochard, A. Flori, T. Durand-Gasselin, et al. (2015). Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: Case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 128 (3): 397–410. doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2439-z.
31. De Oliveira E. J, de Resende M. D. V., Santos V. D., et al. (2012). Genome-wide selection in cassava. Euphytica. 187: 263-276.
32. Jarvis A, Ramirez-Villegas Campo B. V. H, et al. (2012). Is cassava the answer to African climate change adaptation? Trop. Plant Biol. 5: 9-29.
33. Poland J, Endelman J, Dawson J, et al. (2012). Genomic selection in wheat breeding using genotyping-by-sequencing. Plant Genome. 5: 103-113.
34. Belhaj K, Chaparro-Garcia A, Kamoun, Patron NJ, Nekrasov V (2015). Editing plant genomes with CRISPR/Cas9. Curr Opin Biotechnol; 32: 76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2014.11.007. Epub 2014 Nov 29.
35. Shen B, Zhang W. S, Zhang J, et al. (2014). Efficient genome modification by CRISPR-Cas9 nickase with minimal off-target effects. Nat. Meth. 11: 399-402.